constexpr became way more powerful. Additionally, we have
consteval functions in C++20 that are quite similar to
Let me first describe a feature in C++20 that surprised me the most.
constexpr Containers and Algorithms of the Standard Template Library
C++20 supports the
constexpr means that the member functions of both containers can be applied at compile time. Additionally, more than
100 classical algorithms of the Standard Template Library are declared as
constexpr. Consequently, you can sort a
std::vector of ints at compile time.
Let’s see what this means:
The two containers
std::vector (lines (1) and (2)) are sorted at compile time using
constexpr-declared functions. In the first case, the function
maxElement returns the last element of the vector
myVec, which is its maximum value. In the second case, I use an immediately-invoked lambda that is declared
constexpr. Here is the output of the program:
The crucial idea for
constexpr containers is transient allocation.
Transient allocation means that memory allocated at compile time must also be released at compile time. Consequently, the compiler can detect a function’s mismatch of allocation and deallocation. The following example applies transient allocation.
The minor program has two serious issues. First, the memory in the
forgottenRelease (line (1)) is not released. Second, the non-array deallocation (line 3) in the
falseRelease (line (3)) does not match the array allocation. Consequentially, the compilation fails.
With C++20, we got
consteval functions that are pretty similar to
Often developers are irritated because they don’t know if a
constexpr function is executed at run time or compile time. Let’s consider the following code snippet.
constexprFunction is, as its name suggests, a
- A constexpr function must run at compile time when used in a
constexprcontext, or the result is requested at compile time. line (1) and line (2) are
constexprcontexts. Line (3), on the contrary, requires the function execution
constexprFuncionon compile time.
- The call
constexprFunction(a)(line 4) must be executed at run time because a is not a constant expression.
- Line 5 is an interesting case. There are no requirements for the function execution. Therefore, the call constexprFunction(100) (line 5) can be executed at run or compile times. From the C++ standard perspective, both are fine.
In contrast to a
constexpr function, a
consteval function can only be executed at compile time.
consteval creates a so-called immediate function.
Each invocation of an immediate function creates a compile-time constant.
consteval cannot be applied to destructors or functions that allocate or deallocate. A
consteval function is as a
constexpr function implicitly inline and has to fulfill the requirements for a
The requirements of a
constexpr function in C++14 and, therefore, a
consteval function are:
- have conditional jump instructions or loop instructions.
- have more than one instruction.
- invoke constexpr functions. A
constevalfunction can only invoke a
constexprfunction but not the other way around.
- use fundamental data types as variables that must be initialized with a constant expression.
constexpr) function cannot
- have static or
- have a try block nor a goto instruction.
- invoke or use non-
constevalfunctions or non-
- have static or
There is one exciting use-case that
consteval enables. You can initialize a local non-constant variable at compile time.
res is initialized at compile time (line 1) and modified at run time (line 2). On the contrary, if the function
doubleMe is declared as
constexpr, it could be executed at run time.
Before I dive into the new topic block design with templates, I want to present in the next post the C++17 feature
constexpr if. constexpr if enables it to compile source code conditionally and can be used for nice tricks at compile time.
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- Embedded Programmierung mit modernem C++ 12.12.2023 – 14.12.2023 (Präsenzschulung, Termingarantie)
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- C++ – The Core Language
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- Design Pattern and Architectural Pattern with C++
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