Template Arguments


It is quite interesting how the compiler deduces the types for the template arguments. To make it short, you get most of the time the type you expect. The rules do not only apply to function templates (C++98) but also to auto (C++11), to class templates (C++17), and concepts (C++20).



C++ supports function template argument deduction since its beginning. Here is a short recap.

Function Template Argument Deduction

Let me invoke a function template max for int and double

template <typename T>
T max(T lhs, T rhs) {
    return (lhs > rhs)? lhs : rhs;

int main() {
    max(10, 5);         // (1)
    max(10.5, 5.5);     // (2)


In this case, the compiler deduces the template arguments from the function arguments. C++ Insights shows that the compiler creates a full specialized function template for max for int (1) and for double (2).


The process of template type deduction such as in this case produces most of the times the expected type. It is quite enlightening to analyze this process deeper.

Template Type Deduction

When deducing the template type, three entities come into play: T, ParameterType, and expression.

template <typename T>
void func(ParameterType param);



Two types are deduced:

  • T
  • ParameterType

The ParameterType can be a

  • Value
  • Reference (&) or Pointer (*)
  • Univeral Reference (&&)

The expression can be an lvalue or an rvalue having. Additionally, the lvalue or rvalue can be a reference, or const/volatile qualified.

The easiest way to understand the template type deduction process is to vary the ParameterType.

ParameterType is a Value

Taking the parameter by value is probably the most used variant.

template <typename T>
void func(T param);



  • When expr is a reference, the reference is ignored => newExpr is created
  • When newExpr is const or volatile, const or volatile is ignored.

If the ParameterType is a reference or a universal reference, the constness (or volatileness) of expr is respected.

ParameterType is a Reference (&) or Pointer (*)

For simplicity, I use a reference. The analogous argumentation holds for a pointer. Essentially, you exactly get the result you expect.

template <typename T>
void func(T& param);
// void func(T* param);



  • When expr is a reference, the reference is ignored (but added at the end).
  • The expr matches the ParameterType and the resulting type becomes a reference. This means,
    • an expr of type int becomes an int&
    • an expr of type const int becomes a const int&
    • an expr of type const int& becomes a const int&

ParameterType is a Universal Reference (&&)

template <typename T>
void func(T&& param);



  • When expr is an lvalue, the resulting type becomes an lvalue reference.
  • When expr is an rvalue, the resulting type becomes an rvalue reference.

Admittedly, this explanation was pretty technical. Here is an example.

// templateTypeDeduction.cpp

template <typename T>
void funcValue(T param) { }

template <typename T>
void funcReference(T& param) { }

template <typename T>
void funcUniversalReference(T&& param) { }

class RVal{};

int main() {

    const int lVal{};
    const int& ref = lVal;
    funcValue(lVal);                  // (1)
    funcReference(lVal);              // (2)
    funcUniversalReference(lVal);     // (3)



I define and use a function template taking its argument by value (1), by reference (2), and by universal reference (3).

Thanks to C++ Insights, I can visualize the type deduction of the compiler.

  • (1): Both calls of funcValue cause the same instantiation of the function template. The deduced type is an int.



  • (2): Calling the function funcReference with const int& gives the type const int&.


  • (3): Using the function funcUniversalReference give an lvalue reference or an rvalue reference.


There is one interesting fact when you invoke the function funcValue with a C-array. The C-array decays.

Decay of a C-array

Taking a C-array by value is special.


// typeDeductionArray.cpp

template <typename T>
void funcValue(T param) { }

int main() {

    int intArray[10]{ 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9};



When you invoke the function template funcValue with a C-array, the C-array decays to a pointer onto its first element. Decay has many facets. It is applied when a function argument is passed by value. Decay means that an implicit conversion function-to-pointer, array-to-pointer, or lvalue-to-rvalue is applied. Additionally, the reference of a type T and its const-volatile qualifiers are removed.

Here is the screenshot of the program from C++ Insights.


This essentially means that you don't know the size of the C-array. 

But there is a trick. Taking the C-array by reference and pattern matching on the type and the size on the C-array gives you the size of the C-array:

// typeDeductionArraySize.cpp

#include <cstddef>
#include <iostream>

template <typename T, std::size_t N>
std::size_t funcArraySize(T (&arr)[N]) { 
    return N;

int main() {

    std::cout << '\n';

    int intArray[10]{ 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9};


    std::cout << "funcArraySize(intArray): " << funcArraySize(intArray) << '\n';

    std::cout << '\n';


The function template funcArraySize deduces the size of the C-arrays. I gave for readability reasons the C-array parameter the name arr: std::size_t funcArraySize(T (&arr)[N]). This is not necessary and you can just write std::size_t funcArraySize(T (&)[N]).  Here are the internals from C++ Insights.


 Finally, the output of the program:



When you understand template type deduction, you essentially understand auto type deduction in C++11.

auto Type Deduction

auto type deduction uses the rules of template type deduction.

To remind you, these are the essential entities of template type deduction:

template <typename T> 
void func(ParameterType param);

auto val = 2011;


Understanding auto means, that you have to regard auto as the replacements for T and the type specifiers of auto as the replacements for the ParameterType in the function template. 

The type specifier can be a value (1), a reference (2), or a universal reference (3).

auto val = arg;      // (1)

auto& val = arg;     // (2)

auto&& val = arg;    // (3)


Let's try it out and change the previous program templateTypeDeduction.cpp and use auto instead of function templates.


// autoTypeDeduction.cpp

class RVal{};

int main() {

    const int lVal{};
    const int& ref = lVal;
    auto val1 = lVal;          // (1)
    auto val2 = ref;
    auto& val3 = lVal;         // (2)
    auto&& val4 = lVal;        // (3)
    auto&& val5 = RVal();



When you study the resulting types in C++ Insights, you see that they are identical to the types deduced in the program templateTypeDeduction.cpp.


Of course, auto also decays when it takes a C-array by value.

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What's next?

C++17 makes type deduction more powerful. First, automatic type deduction is possible for non-type template parameters, and second, class templates can also deduce their arguments. In particular, class template argument deduction makes the life of a programmer much easier.

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