Fold Expressions

With fold expressions you can implement the from Haskell known functions foldl, foldr, foldl1 and foldr1 directly in C++. These four functions successively reduce a list to a single value.

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Tags: C++17
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Recursion, List Manipulation, and Lazy Evaluation

The remaining three characteristics of functional programming are told quite quickly: Recursion, manipulation of lists and lazy evaluation.

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Pure Functions

Pure functions are quite similar to mathematical functions. They are the reason that Haskell is called a pure functional programming language.

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Immutable Data

A key to pure functional languages is that their data are immutable. Therefore, assignments such as x= x+1 or ++x are not possible in the pure functional language Haskell. The consequence is that Haskell supports no loops like for, while, or until. They are based on the modification of a loop variable. Haskell does not modify existing data; Haskell creates new data when needed and reuses the old ones.

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Tags: constexpr
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Higher-Order Functions

Higher-order functions are the pendant to First-Class Functions because higher-order functions can take functions as argument or return them as result.

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First-Class Functions

One of the characteristics of functional programming is first class functions. First-class functions behave like data and are heavily used in the Standard Template Library.

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The Definition of Functional Programming

The definition of functional programming is quite easy. Functional programming is the programming with mathematical functions. Is that all? Of course, not!

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