With the relaxed semantic, we have no synchronisations and ordering constraints on atomic operations.
With the relaxed semantic, there is only the atomicity of the operations on atomics left.
std::cout << y.load(std::memory_order_relaxed) << " ";
std::cout << x.load(std::memory_order_relaxed) << std::endl;
Now, the questions are very easy to answer. Does the program have well defined behaviour? Which values for x and y are possible? At the one hand, all operations on x and y are atomic. So the program is well defined. On the other hand, there are no restrictions on the interleavings of the threads. In the end, thread 2 can see the operations on thread 1 in different order. So this is the first time in our process of ongoing optimizations, that thread 2 can display x == 0 and y == 1. All combinations of x and y are possible.
I'm curious, how the graph of CppMem will look like for x == 0 and y == 1?
atomic_int x= 0;
atomic_int y= 0;
That was the CppMem program. Now to the graph.
Execution for (y=0,x=2000)
The graph shows crystal clear the unintuitive behaviour.
x reads the value 2000 from the writing thread, but y reads the value 0 from the main thread. That happens, although the reading of y is sequenced before the reading of x. Sequenced before exactly means, that the operation e:Rrix sb is sequenced-before the operation f:Rrix.
This was the last post in my mini series about ongoing optimization. So, what's next? There are a lot of issues with the singleton pattern. I'm totally aware of that. But the singleton pattern is an ideal use case for a variable, which has to be initialized in a thread safe way. From that point on, you can use it without synchronization.
So in the next post, I discuss different ways to initialize a singleton in a multithreading envrironment. You get the performance numbers and can reason about your uses cases for the thread safe initialization of a variable.
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Thanks in particular to Jon Hess, Lakshman, Christian Wittenhorst, Sherhy Pyton, Dendi Suhubdy, Sudhakar Belagurusamy, and Richard Sargeant.
My special thanks to Embarcadero
I'm happy to give online-seminars or face-to-face seminars world-wide. Please call me if you have any questions.
Here is a compilation of my standard seminars. These seminars are only meant to give you a first orientation.